1. How is the Gram stain used to classify bacteria? How do antibiotics inhibit the growth of bacteria? Explain how carriers play an important role in the transmission of pathogens. Jan acquired a MRSA infection during a stay at a rehabilitation facility. Jan’s physician tells her that her MRSA was caused by S. aureus. How would you explain to Jan what S. aureus is and how it can cause diseases?
2. Lou had abdominal surgery. During his stay at the hospital a catheter was inserted into his bladder. After returning home Lou was diagnosed with a nosocomial infection. What are the principle routes of transmission of nosocomial infections? What can be done to prevent nosocomial infections? What are three reasons why rates of nosocomial infections are markedly higher in developing countries? What are five things that increase the risk of nosocomial infection?
3. What is the difference between a neoplasm, benign tumor, and malignant tumor? Identify four chronic infections that may cause cancer, and what cancer the infection might cause. Mr. Brown age 63 and Mrs. Brown age 61, are being seen in for a routine check-up. What cancer screenings should Mr. and Mrs. Brown receive (name at least 3 and why)?
4. In Western societies, why is colorectal cancer the most common cancer, but yet there has been a decline in the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer over the last 40 years? Identify and discuss four nonspecific warning signs of cancer and which cancer the warning sign is linked to. Aaron is a 28-year-old who had an EBV infection during high school. He noticed one of his lymph nodes in his neck is swollen but is not painful. He is also experiencing night sweats. What is a possible diagnosis? Give some possible treatments for this diagnosis?