Sociology Final

Discipline: Sociology

Type of Paper: Question-Answer

Academic Level: Undergrad. (yrs 3-4)

Paper Format: APA

Pages: 1 Words: 275


What is the difference between sex and gender?

Sex refers to physical or physiological differences between males and females, while gender is the extent to which one identifies as being either masculine or feminine.

True or false: A person’s sex, as determined by his or her biology, does not always correspond with his or her gender.


The term sexual orientation can be defined as:

A person’s emotional and sexual attraction to a particular sex.

Peggy accepts a job offer as an advertising copywriter. Her boss immediately assigns her campaigns for products such as makeup and cleaning products. Peggy asks for different clients, but her boss tells her she should stick to what she and “her kind” know best.  Peggy is experiencing :


Chase grew up wanting to wear his sister’s dresses over his brother’s pants and button up shirts.  When Chase turns 18, he decides to begin living as woman, though he’s still only sexually attracted to women.  He decides he doesn’t want to undergo surgery.  Chase is:


The term sexuality is defined by the text as:

A person’s capacity for sexual feelings.

Jenny is given a doll for 2nd birthday, while her brother, Tyrone, is given a fire truck.  This is an example of gender:


What is the first agent of socialization?


When Jeanette’s parents find out her twin brother, Rex, has been sexually active, they tell him to use protection.  When they found out Jeanette has been sexually active, they ground her for a month.  This is an example of:

A double standard

For every dollar a man makes in the United States, how much does a woman make?

77 cents

When thinking about gender, Jeff sees men as the dominant social group and women the subordinate group.  This exploitation of the subordinate group has created social problems, such as high rates of poverty among single mothers.  Which sociological perspective best fit Jeff’s views?

Conflict Theory

Tasha believes that gender is about the division of labor in the family.  In the pre-industrial era, men were the hunter-gatherers and bread-winners, and women were keepers of the home.  After World War II, changes in the family structure allowed women to become breadwinners also, altering the roles of the family.  From what sociological perspective do Tasha’s thoughts come?
Structural Functionalism

The term doing gender can be defined as:

When people perform tasks based upon the gender assigned to them by society and, in turn, themselves.

When Wendy’s sorority sisters discover that Wendy is a lesbian, they hold a secret meeting to decide if Wendy should still be allowed to pledge. A handful of the sisters vote “no.” This is an example of:


Which of the following is a product of gender stereotyping?

a.      Keisha’s mom encouraging her to take home economics over shop class so she can please her future husband.

b.      A music store employee encouraging a young woman to study the piano or flute instead of the drums or guitar.

c.      A teacher discouraging a female student from entering the military, suggesting nursing school instead.

Which of the following is NOT a product of gender stereotyping?

A father buying a basketball hoop for his daughter’s eighth birthday.

What is the purpose of queer theory?

To question the ways society perceives and experiences sex, gender, and sexuality.

In 1973, the American Psychological Association (APA) declassified homosexuality as an abnormal or deviant disorder.  Which sociological perspective would be most interested in the statement the (APA) made to society?
Symbolic Interactionism

In which country is sex education required in public schools?


What is the Kinsey Scale?

A six-point rating system that ranges from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively homosexual orientation.

Which of the following contributes to the myths surrounding male and female learning abilities in the classroom?

a. Praising males for right answers more often than praising females.

b. Giving males more opportunity to expand on their ideas.

c. Placing males and females in competition with each other.

d. All of the above.*

In the United States, which race would be considered the dominant group?


Which of the following is an example of racial steering?

Real estate agents directing white clients to look for housing in certain neighborhoods, and non-white clients to others

According to the social construction of race school of thought, race is:

Not biologically identifiable

Adolf Hitler blaming Germany’s pre-war problems on the Jewish population is an example of:

The scapegoat theory

Max believes that most people’s racial beliefs are based on images conveyed in popular media since many people never meet members of certain races for themselves.  Max’s perspective is:

Symbolic interactionist

The term discrimination is defined in the text as:

Prejudiced action against a group of people.

Speedy Gonzalez is a popular cartoon character, but is widely considered an inappropriate stereotype.  Many children are raised watching Speedy Gonzalez cartoons, unaware that such stereotypes are negative.  This is a product of:

The culture of prejudice

When Alexander, who is white, drives his car over the speed limit, a police officer lets him off with a warning.  When Christopher, who is Hispanic, drives his car at the same speed as Alexander on the same road, the officer gives him a ticket, even though his record is clean.  This is an example of:

White privilege

President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s executive order 9066, which authorized the establishment of internment camps for anyone with as little as one-eighth Japanese ancestry following Pearl Harbor, is an example of:


The term segregation is defined in the text as:

The physical separation of two groups, particularly in residence, but also in workplace and social functions

In 2010, what did controversial Senate Bill 1070 propose, causing a series of protests and legal battles?
During a lawful stop, detention, or arrest, Arizona police officers may establish the immigration status of anyone they suspect may be here illegally.

Arizona Senate Bill 1070, often referred to colloquially as the “papers, please” law, was aimed widely at those of:

Mexican descent

Angela believes that race relations in America are poor because the white ruling class has enacted various laws and regulations to keep other racial groups from achieving equality. With which sociological perspective does Angela’s view best align?
Conflict Theory

Which group within the United States has been stereotyped as the model minority?

The Asian American community

1967’s Supreme Court case Loving v. Virginia, a case which legally allowed interracial marriage, is an example of

Asad’s first grade class is diverse: there are two students from Korea, five students from South America, two students from the United States, three students from Kuwait, a student from Mexico, two students from England, and five students from western Europe.  Asad’s class is:

The term assimilation is defined by the text as:

The process by which a minority individual or group takes on the characteristics of the dominant culture

Cedric’s uncle believes that racism and discrimination have made a positive impact on society – but only in the lives of those who are members of the dominant group.  Which sociological perspective is Cedric’s uncle coming from?


Which of the following is NOT an example of a stereotype?

Isaiah cooking his girlfriend a meat-free dinner because she is a vegetarian

Which of the following is an example of a stereotype?

a. Cynthia believing her best friend to be good at math because she is Asian.

b. Maria assuming her son-in-law is a heavy drinker because he is Irish.

c. Pedro assuming his neighbor likes rap music because he is African American.

True or false: The majority of American citizens are descendants of immigrants?


Ally’s father was sent to prison when she was 12 for the trafficking of narcotics; her brother was arrested when she was 13 for possession of methamphetamines. By the age of 18, Ally has been arrested three times for possession of marijuana. Which theory best describes Ally’s experience?

Differential association theory

The term deviance can be defined as:

A violation of established contextual, cultural, or social norms, whether folkways, mores, or codified law

What is the difference between a violent crime and a hate crime?
A hate crime is based on a person’s race, religion, or other characteristics

Jake receives a promotion at his law firm after winning an important case. This is an example of a:

Positive formal sanction

Which theorist studied the power elite, and the influence they had over society?

C. Wright Mills

The term crime can be defined as:

A behavior that violates official law and is punishable through formal sanctions

Functionalist Émile Durkheim believed some deviance within society was:

Necessary; it challenged people’s views

Which of the following is not a branch of the U.S. Criminal Justice System?

The Jury

The term secondary deviance can be defined as:

When a person’s self-concept and behavior begin to change after his or her actions are labeled as deviant by members of society

Which of the following is an example of a negative informal sanction?

Beatrix being booed off stage after telling an offensive joke during her comedy routine

Social control is:

The regulation and enforcement of norms.

Strain theory:

Addresses the relationship between having socially acceptable goals and having socially acceptable means to reach those goals.

In first grade, Scott is unfairly singled out by his teacher for bad behavior, partly because his older brothers had behavioral problems themselves.  Throughout grade school, Scott gains a reputation as a “problem” child.  Scott eventually drops out of school, thinking he was born to fail anyway. Which school of thought best fits Scott’s experience?
Labeling theory

Bernie Madoff, recently sentenced to 150 years in prison for creating a ponzi scheme which caused clients to lose millions of dollars, engaged in which form of crime?

Corporate crime

True or False: Deviance is always considered a crime?


As of 2008, how many adults in the United States are in jail or prison?

1 in 100

Strain theory
Robert Merton

Differential association
Edwin Sutherland

Control theory
Travis Hirschi 

Cultural deviance theory
Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay

Which social class is quickly disappearing from modern economies?
Middle Class

How is global stratification different from social stratification?

Global stratification examines a myriad of different types of prejudice and inequality, while social stratification covers the social class and standing of individuals.

In recent times, scholars have been trying to sort out why the countries on the continent of Africa, as a whole, have trouble competing to today’s global, capitalist economy. While an answer to this question is complex and carries with it many ambiguities, most scholars point to European colonialism as a key to understanding the current state of Africa. A sociologist studying this topic, would ascribe to which theoretical paradigm?
Conflict Theory

The Kurds are a people group with no homeland. They often are the victims of intimidation and violence which has resulted in their impoverished status as a group. A sociologist studying the Kurds would likely approach his conclusions from the ____________ theoretical perspective.

Immanuel Wallerstein’s classification of nations uses which set of terms?

core nation, peripheral nation, semi-peripheral nation

Which statement explains why Immanuel Wallerstein’s classification is preferred by sociologist?
Wallerstein’s classification uses neutral terms that allow his classification of nations to be less biased and appear less ethnocentric

In the United States, where outsourcing is almost always addressed negatively, companies still get away with outsourcing. How do they do this?

Americans want lower prices for their consumable products, and the only way for companies to deliver those low prices is to outsource the work to cheaper laborers.

Which number does the World Bank use to determine the status and classification of each nation?
Gross National Income

Which trend has the World Bank seen in its study of poverty in low-income nations?

More women live in poverty than men

88 million people live on less than $1.00 a day. These people are said to be living in _____________.
Absolute poverty

Maria babysits as a form of income while she is in college. Because the amounts she gets per job are not huge, Maria never bothers to report her earnings to the IRS. Maria is a part of the


Underground economy

Which continent has the greatest number of impoverished nations in the world?

Which continent has the largest number of people living in poverty in the world?


What has been the main factor that has aided the financial situations of many countries in Latin America?
A greater emphasis on educating young people

Child labor and sweatshops have existed since the Industrial Revolution and even before that. Many products sold today are created in these sweatshops, even though, living in the 21st century, we like to think we are above such practices. What is one practical way we can try and stop multinational companies from using such labor?

We can be responsible consumers and research products before buying them.

Which is an effect of absolute poverty that also contributes to its cyclical nature?

Lack of education

Which statement would you find in the analysis of poverty by Neckerman and Torche?
Once poverty has entered an geographic location, it is very difficult to get rid of.

An example of slavery, according to Anti-Slavery International, is:

Factories using child labor

Areas that once had vast economic growth and large amounts of industry, but are now suffering from the effects of outsourcing are going through a period of:

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was created by:
Core nation countries

Elisa graduated from college with a double major and was inducted into the Phi Beta Kappa society. She was then offered a job in New York where she worked 12 hours a day and produced excellent results. Within two years she had over 100 employees working under her. Elisa’s hard work was rewarded with a raise and a bonus. This form of promotion is based on the principles of:
A meritocracy

Mohit spent his days combing through garbage in Mumbai, India with his brothers and sisters. Sometimes he would find food, or something to sell for money. He never tried to overcome his lower-class status because he had seen his friends try and fail. So, he accepted his fate, and tried to live life as best he could in a closed society. Mohit is an example of someone living under:
A caste system

It was time for Oli to marry. He had finished school and was starting a job. His parents chose a bride for him whose parents had the same amount of wealth and belonged to the same class as they did. Oli and his bride will have a(n) _________  marriage.

Cate is the daughter of a Senator and the former CEO of a Fortune 500 company. Harry grew up on a farm, tilling the land for a living. They are planning a June wedding. They will have a(n)___________ marriage.

Which factor is considered when evaluating someone’s standard of living?

a.      Income

b.      Employment

c.      Class

With the recent Occupy Wall Street Movement, the people of the United States keep hearing about the top 1%. How much of the United State’s wealth rests in the hands of the wealthiest top 1% of people?

Charlotte was born to a lower class family in rural Pennsylvania. After taking a job in the mail room of a large corporate office, Charlotte is slowly promoted through the ranks and becomes CEO of the company by the age of 50. What type of stratification is shown in this story?
Intragenerational mobility

What is particularly unique about the United States middle class?

It is broken into two subcategories: upper and lower middle class.

Which historical event was greatly responsible for global stratification as we see it today?
The Industrial Revolution

Which classification method best shows how competitive a nation’s economy is in global terms?
Calculating the GDP per capita of each country and using those numbers to create a global average that can be used as an economic yard stick

GNI PPP, or gross national income divided by purchasing power parity, helps measure:
The standard of living in a country

In 2008 the United States, as well as the rest of the world, felt the effects of the recession. After the collapse of the housing market, people lost their jobs and they quit spending money. Many people could not afford their mortgages anymore and their homes went into foreclosure. For many people, it was a time of __________.
Downward mobility

Since the social classes in the United States do not have any clear boundaries, how is a sociologist supposed to determine whether their subjects are in the upper class or the upper-middle class?
Upper class is often defined as having control over one’s life and the lives of people around you, while the upper-middle class is often defined as having control only over one’s own life.

What seems to be the key (although not the rule) to upward social mobility?
How much education you have.

A person’s position in a country’s social stratification is determined by:
Wealth, power, income, race, education

The Davis-Moore Thesis states:
That the more society values a particular profession, the more the people in that profession will make.

Whose work do conflict theorists rely on to help form their arguments surrounding social stratification?
Karl Marx

Hope is desperate for the new designer purse that she saw while window shopping at her local mall. She knew every girl in school would covet her bag and wish to be like her. When she walked in, she whipped out her credit card, and purchased the $5,000 bag. This kind of purchasing is called:

Conspicuous consumption

Symbolic interactionists have come to the conclusion that:

Most people only socialize with people in their same social class.

One main issue in studying global social inequality is:

Social inequality is relative and therefore, difficult to compare across cultures.